|University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Running from Friday, May 6 thru Sunday, May 8, the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse (UW-L) campus was the site of a truly unique and historic weekend dedicated to the trumpet. The Spring Trumpet Festival attracted over 400 students, teachers, and players from all over the country, as the event featured a number of giants in the trumpet world. Headlining the weekend was Mr. Adolph Herseth, the legendary principal trumpet of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra for over 50 years. Mr. Herseth would be featured in the festival as a speaker, clinician, and performer for the culminating concert. Also arriving to perform were Doc Severinsen, the Grammy-Award winning lead man of Johnny Carson’s “Tonight Show” band, and Charles Lazarus, the latest addition to the much acclaimed Canadian Brass and former member of the Minnesota Orchestra, not to mention a very strong solo artist in the jazz world.
The former professor of trumpet at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, David Cooper, a widely acclaimed jazz player, as well as a versatile crossover player in the classical idiom, who currently holds the principal chair of the Dubuque Symphony Orchestra, was another featured clinician, speaker, and performer. Though it appeared as if the festival could not boast any more giants in the trumpet world, the culminating, Sunday night concert would also feature Martin Hodel, professor of trumpet at St. Olaf College, Douglas Carlsen and Robert Dorer, both members of the Minnesota Orchestra trumpet section, and the highly versatile Craig Hara, principal trumpet of the La Crosse Symphony Orchestra.
Friday, May 6, 2005
Adolph Herseth Convocation
The festival began with a convocation featuring Adolph Herseth. In the University’s Annett Recital Hall, Mr. Herseth walked out on to the stage, and promptly received a standing ovation. He sat down next to Dr. Cooper and proceeded to answer questions that Dr. Cooper and the trumpet studio at the University had prepared. The emphasis of the talks was not so much on technique, but they provided an opportunity for Mr. Herseth to share the seemingly infinite number of stories he has acquired through his time with the CSO. The discussions covered a number of topics; equipment, different orchestras, different conductors, fellow colleagues and players, composers, as well as auditions and the audition process.
First, Mr. Herseth was asked, as many are curious about, his audition for the Chicago Symphony. He stated that things were very different back then, compared to the way things are run these days. Many who take auditions today understand just how arduous they can be, with a lot of rounds to get through. In his day, however, one would receive an audition through a referral, or a recommendation from a colleague. At the time, Mr. Herseth was a student at the New England Conservatory, and was recommended by his teacher, Georges Mager, to take an audition for the CSO principal trumpet spot. The audition itself consisted of playing excerpts for Arthur Rodzinski in a 5th Ave, New York, loft. He was under the impression that the audition was for third or fourth trumpet, so he was quite surprised to hear that he had gotten the job for principal. Before officially winning, however, Mr. Herseth was asked to audition again in Orchestra Hall in Chicago. He did, in order for the committee to hear him in the acoustical situation that Orchestra Hall presents.
Many times, he shared, a committee will ask the one auditioning to play the same excerpt in a different style. Perhaps more staccato, slower, or whatever it may be. It is important to remain flexible and able to play in many different styles, as conductors will change often, and everyone is looking for a different interpretation. Because of this, he states that he will never mark in breath marks on a part, because the phrasing can change with each maestro who steps up to the podium. Being able to adapt to different musical situations is a very strong quality to have.
The talks shifted to equipment, and Mr. Herseth stated that it is important for the trumpet section to use the same equipment, in order to achieve a more blended sound. He also talked about how he uses several different mouthpieces, in order to achieve the best sound for the situation. In playing Brahms, for example, he uses an old German mouthpiece that pre-dates the Monke factory. (He also uses a Monke “B” rotary trumpet, in addition to his Bach, large-bore C trumpet.) Again, it appeared that it is very important to be able to adapt, not only musically, but on equipment as well.
One of the highlights of the talks was hearing him talk about different composers and conductors that he has played with throughout his tenure. The amazing thing about these stories is that, for many of us, they are the things that we only read about in books, and he was there living through all of them. He had many things to say about his summers at Tanglewood, during his time as a student in Boston. He met many giants of the twentieth century there, including Koussevitsky, Bernstein, Copland, and Britten. He watched Bernstein conduct Copland’s Appalachian Spring, the original chamber version, from Copland’s own manuscripts, and he performed Britten’s Peter Grimes, with the composer in attendance. Each example was told with such captivity, and the whole audience listened with an eager enthusiasm. His discussions on conductors ranged from his admiration for Pierre Monteaux, his experiences playing under Fritz Reiner, Sir Gerog Solti, and the different techniques of many other conductors. The list is seemingly a “who’s who” of the conducting world; Ormandy, Walter, Stokowski, Ozawa, and many, many more.
One thing that several people were curious about was the story of Mr. Herseth’s famed rehearsal of Strauss’ Also Sprach Zarathustra with Fritz Reiner. Reiner was one who was very interested in keeping players on their toes. In this case, he had gotten the rehearsal up to the moment where the trumpet has the octave leap up to high C. He would stop the orchestra each time after Mr. Herseth had played the part, and would ask to have it done again, always making it seem as though he had trouble with another section in the orchestra. This was an attempt, obviously, to test Mr. Herseth’s ability to continue hitting the infamous passage. He, of course, hit it each time, and after a while, Reiner inquired as to whether or not he would like to play it again for himself. Mr. Herseth said that he just looked at his watch and replied, “Well, I’m here until 12:30.”
The last important thing to take away from the convocation was one of the most interesting stories that can seemingly change the way anyone looks at the Hindemith Sonata. Mr. Herseth and a group of CSO wind players sat down with Hindemith, while Hindemith was conducting the orchestra, and discussed the various Sonatas he had composed for their instruments. It is in fact true that Hindemith could play all of the pieces on the respective instruments, just not all the way through, and, as Mr. Herseth told us, Hindemith would not have charged anyone to come and listen to him try! Mr. Herseth was curious about the chorale at the end of the Trumpet Sonata, and asked Hindemith why it was marked so slowly. (He said that it was marked at eighth note=49.) The chorale has long been one of the more difficult tasks to play, because the end is so fatiguing. Hindemith claimed that the tempo was an editor’s mistake, and that it should be played as it would be sung in church. Mr. Herseth then played the opening passage, this time not as slowly, and it changed the way many of us look at the end of the Sonata.
The convocation was a true highlight for everyone who attended, and was the best way to start the festival. He even gave demonstrations of some famous excerpts, such as Pictures and Mahler 5. Hearing him play those parts was truly a special moment, and the convocation was even that much more memorable, due in part to the endless stories that he shared.
Adolph Herseth Master class
Mr. Herseth’s master class consisted of two parts, a mock audition and a trumpet sectional. Both of these were performed by the trumpet studio at UW-L. The participating students, Lucas Swanson, Elizabeth Ofte, Matt Twieg, Jerod Sommerfeldt, and Matt Cody, played the opening Promenade from Pictures, the opening of Mahler 5, and the lyrical solo in the first movement of Mahler 5. The audition was run like any other, with the students playing from off stage right, and Mr. Herseth and Dr. Cooper serving as the panel, both seated onstage and taking notes. Though there were specific comments for all of the participants, Mr. Herseth re-iterated a few main points that seemed to apply to all of them.
One important aspect that Mr. Herseth discussed was the issue of breathing in the Promenade. Several of the students took slight breaths at various spots in the excerpt, one example being a breath between the octave leaps up to F and Ab. He stressed the importance of playing all the way through the phrase, which helps to give it a more complete feeling. By breathing in the middle of the phrase, things start to sound awkward. If breath support is an issue in this excerpt, then Mr. Herseth states that you simply need to take in more air. ‘Imagine breathing as if you are trying to blow a leaf off of a tree outside’ was one of his main points. To him, if you breathe properly and play musically, there is nothing more you can do.
For the opening of Mahler 5, Mr. Herseth stressed the importance of keeping a consistent feel in the triplets, maintaining the slight crescendo in each set, and especially staying in the same tempo with the last, arpeggiated set of triplets. It is also necessary to ensure that the phrase builds gradually, throughout the gradual crescendo that occurs before the more prominent C#. In keeping with consistency, it is always important to maintain a very solid feel with the dotted eighth/sixteenth note rhythms. Richard Strauss, he mentioned, would even place the accent on the sixteenth note, to ensure the driving feel. Most important to Mr. Herseth, is to maintain the highly musical quality of the excerpt, and never to forget that it depicts a funeral march in Vienna. This should help to ensure that you play in the right style, or to tell the right story.
The choice of spots to breathe was another central issue in the lyrical solo. He also mentioned that it is very important to know where you are in the orchestra, in this case with the violas, and to maintain a singing, string-like quality.
For the final portion of the master class, the students played group excerpts taken from the literature. The first group to play was a trio, playing the trumpet section solo in Brahms’ Academic Festival Overture. Mr. Herseth told the group to remember when to play out and when to be less prominent in the excerpt. The time to back off, he said, is part way through, when everyone is sounding the octave C’s. The spot to be more prominent begins when the 1st trumpet plays the C major arpeggio up to the G. After this advice, the playing of the students really opened up, and the excerpt seemed to take on a whole new life.
The next section to play performed the muted, trio section from Debussy’s Fetes. Mr. Herseth stressed that the section should always try to find the softest mute possible when playing this excerpt. It is also necessary to use the same mute, in order to achieve a balanced sound. He also commented on the sixteenth note pick-up at the beginning, stating that Pierre Monteaux, with the approval of Debussy, treated the pick-up as a sixteenth note triplet. He stated that this helps to prepare for the triplet figures within the excerpt. Finally, he reminded the group to tell the story, this time of a festival parade coming slowly over the distant hills.
The last section of students performed excerpts from Strauss’ Ein Heldenleben, both the Eb and Bb parts. Mr. Herseth’s main points were to ensure that the sixteenth note figures lead into the downbeat, and that playing a full forte is necessary. It is always better to play a little louder than too soft. He also reminded everyone to enjoy playing: to him, that’s the main thing.
Saturday, May 7, 2005
David Cooper Master Class
Dr. Cooper worked with seven players of different ages and abilities in an open master class forum. The students selected played orchestral excerpts, jazz and solo literature.
Instrument Manufacturer Panel Discussion
Dr. Cooper led a discussion with many of the instrument manufacturers, vendors and repair specialists that were present throughout the trumpet festival. Instruments represented were Edwards Trumpets, Larsen Brasswerks, Kanstul Instuments, Gary Radtkey of GR Technologies, Melk Instrument Repair, TrumpeTech and Zeus Trumpets. This gave the audience a chance to learn about the aspects and approaches of these different companies and the opportunity to ask questions about such issues as plating, cryogenics and other tricks of the trade.
Presentation – Gary Radtke of GR Technologies
“Selecting properly matched equipment to optimize your performance.”
Presentation – Michael Goode
"Stage Fright in Music Performance and Its Relationship to the Unconscious. " Trumpeter, Author and Stage Fright Consultant Michael Goode talked about his book of the same title regarding stage fright and the mental aspects of playing. There was an opportunity Q&A at the end.
Presentation – Edwards Trumpets
“Finding the correct fit for a trumpet.”
This was a demonstration by a “guinea pig” trumpet player (UW-L’s Liz Ofte) who was requested to demonstrate a range of sound and articulation over and over again while the representative from Edwards Trumpets switched bells, crooks and leadpipes to demonstrate the process he goes through to help a player find the fit that works for them on his instruments.
Sunday, May 8, 2005
David Cooper Master Class
Dr. Cooper gave the morning’s first master class, this time on finding the line in unaccompanied trumpet music. He stressed the importance of finding phrase indications, and knowing where and when to breathe, no matter what style of music you are playing. Dr. Cooper demonstrated this by playing three contrasting unaccompanied solos. The first selection, the Prelude to Suite II from his own adaptation of the Bach Cello Suites for trumpet, is from the Baroque era. The second piece was titled A Study in Mono, by Jerod Sommerfeldt, a student at UW-L, which is very much steeped in the tradition of the 20th century. The final selection played by Dr. Cooper was I Remember, by Dana Wilson, which utilizes elements of jazz, often quoting the famous solos of Louis Armstrong, Clifford Brown, Miles Davis, and Dizzy Gillespie.
With the pieces projected onto a large screen on stage, Dr. Cooper began by playing the Bach Prelude. His strong sense of continuity and line was very prominent as the piece unfolded. Always in control, Dr. Cooper ended the piece in the dramatic fashion it calls for, providing the audience with an outstanding interpretation of Bach’s seemingly timeless music. He talked about finding phrases in Bach’s music, which has certain necessary spots to breathe, and is inherent in the music of the Baroque. Breathing in the wrong spot can leave a phrase feeling incomplete, therefore it is necessary to find the correct lines and make sure to play all the way through them.
He next played A Study in Mono, which was a sharp contrast to the style of the Bach piece. It begins in a very slow manner, which allows all of the material to slowly present itself, gaining momentum into a fleeting section full of odd meters. Dr. Cooper demonstrated his considerable technical ability through the piece, as it calls for some dexterity in the fingers, as well as a large range. He talked about how it becomes more difficult to find the correct place to breathe in this type of music, because there is less emphasis on traditional phrase structure. However, Dr. Cooper stated that he had the luxury of consulting the composer, as Jerod is a student of his. Jerod proceeded to give us a composer’s view of how his piece was created, and gave his thoughts on finding the line.
The last piece to be played was composer Dana Wilson’s I Remember. This piece was a joy to listen to, because it was, for many at the festival, the first chance to hear Dr. Cooper play in the jazz idiom. The piece allowed him to demonstrate his flexibility in the differing styles, from playing some of the solos of Louis Armstrong, to the “cool” style of Miles Davis. It was fitting that this was the culminating piece to Dr. Cooper’s master class, because not only was it a piece which used jazz, but combined with the others, it definitely showed how Dr. Cooper was able to demonstrate how breathing and the concepts associated with it can transcend the differing eras and genres of music.
Charles Lazarus Master Class
Charles Lazarus, the newest member of the Canadian Brass, presented an afternoon master class on the intricacies involved in playing in the brass quintet. Members of the UW-L student brass quintet, consisting of Lucas Swanson and Matt Twieg on trumpet, Dana Danielson on horn, Dave Hundseder on trombone, and Brian Kelly on bass trombone, were chosen to play for Mr. Lazarus, offering Victor Ewald’s Quintet no. 2, and Mosaics by composer/trumpeter Anthony Plog.
The focus of Mr. Lazarus’ demonstrations was to always maintain a solid, consistent air stream. This was an important issue addressed by many of the clinicians throughout the festival. By maintaining the proper breath support, it is possible to achieve the best sound, and allow the player to have control of the instrument, which can reduce the number of weak attacks when starting a note, or the often-unavoidable “frack.”
The group began by performing some of the Ewald Quintet. Mr. Lazarus was quick to ensure that the group was keeping a high level of communication with each other. In order to achieve this, he stated that it is important to know who is playing where, when to be a soloist, and when to support the other players. He even had the two trumpets, during a short section where they play off of each other in a call and answer fashion, improvise a story to the music. Instead of playing their lines on the trumpet, Mr. Lazarus had them make up lyrics and sing their parts in an operatic style. The resulting story created by the two trumpeters was the story of unrequited love between two potential lovers, a strong oeuvre for even the likes of Rossini. This was a very comic moment for everyone, especially the demonstrators, but Mr. Lazarus’ message was still felt; one must be conscious of the story involved in the music, in order to maintain a high level of musicality in performance.
Mr. Lazarus’ master class was both fun and very helpful for those who are interested in quintet performance.
Adolph Herseth Presentation
Perhaps the most touching moment of the festival, aside from the emotional standing ovation he received at the opening convocation, was seeing Mr. Adolph Herseth on stage, listening to recordings of himself playing most of the well-known trumpet excerpts with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, while his own parts were displayed on a large screen behind him, in a PowerPoint presentation that he himself created.
Another very memorable moment of the festival came at about fifteen minutes into the presentation when someone walked out onto the stage that Mr. Herseth was speaking and “interrupted” the event. This “interruption” was made by none other than Doc Severinsen, Bud’s long time friend, colleague and student! It had been a number of years since these two masters had seen each other so this reunion was very emotional for the two of them and also for the audience. Doc then took a seat in one of the front rows of the auditorium and listened respectfully to the rest of Bud’s presentation and even asked a few questions.
Some of the excerpts that were discussed were Bach, Brandenburg Concerto no. 2; Mahler, Symphony no. 5; Mussorgsky/Ravel, Pictures at an Exhibition; Hummel, Concerto in E; Stravinsky, Song of the Nightingale; Bartok, Concerto for Orchestra; Scriabin, Poem of Ecstasy; and Strauss, Also Sprach Zarathustra.
One of Mr. Herseth’s main points in his presentation was to always play musically and not just mechanically. To him, it is important to have the ability to be flexible while playing, and be able to interpret excerpts in a variety of ways. He was quick to give examples of the different ways to play a particular excerpt. He first played a solo from Mahler’s Symphony no. 1 in a very straight manner, and then repeated the excerpt with a completely different emotional approach to it. It really changed the way that the musical idea spoke to the audience.
Another large aspect of his talks, not to mention his other discussions, was to always convey a musical story. For him, it isn’t just about hitting all of the right notes; one has to be able to tell the story that goes along. This was a valuable piece of information that he provided everyone with, because it helped those in attendance understand the high level of emotion that Mr. Herseth brings to his playing. His presentation was definite highlight to the weekend.
Principal Guest Artist Panel Discussion
Prior to Sunday night’s concert, festivalgoers were treated to a panel discussion that featured Adolph Herseth, Doc Severinsen, Charles Lazarus, and David Cooper. The focus of the discussions was a chance for the audience to get to know a little more about how some of the featured artists became interested in the trumpet, as well as the difference in playing trumpet today versus the past.
Charles Lazarus remarked that he began playing at age 12, and knew that he wanted to become a professional player after sneaking down to watch Doc on the Tonight Show, late at night. One of his most memorable experiences came when he was given the chance to meet Dizzy Gillespie, at the age of five. He stated that he wasn’t so much interested in Dizzy’s horn, as he was by his impressive cheeks!
Doc Severinsen gave everyone a brief background of his playing, which began in a small town in East Oregon. His father was persistent in trying to make Doc a violinist, as he himself was, but Doc was more interested in the trombone. As his father thought that Doc was a bit too small to reach all of the necessary slide positions, a compromise was made on the trumpet. He received his first trumpet from a local neighbor who had one stashed in his attic, dating from World War I, and received his first lesson by way of a scale scrawled out on a paper grocery sack. From there, Doc would of course become the legendary leader of the Tonight Show band, a member of the Getzen family, and now a guest conductor with the Minnesota Orchestra as well as many other prominent orchestras.
Mr. Severinsen also made some insight as to how he views the trumpet world today, versus the times when he and Mr. Herseth were younger. In the old days, as he put it, there was less of a concentration on technique, and more of an emphasis on musicality. For them, it was necessary to do a variety of different performances, from country bands to big bands, commercial gigs and of course, symphony orchestras. This brought out an array of wonderful stories that the two recollected upon, when playing in some of these various situations. It was a discussion that left all in attendance with a lot of good laughs, some enduring insight, and a chance to get to know something more about such great players.
Sunday Night Concert
The Spring Trumpet Festival culminated on Sunday night with a concert that featured all of the weekend’s guest artists. It was a unique opportunity for all in attendance to see the clinicians and speakers doing what they do best, performing.
The concert began with UW-L students Lucas Swanson and Jerod Sommerfeldt performing Stravinsky’s Fanfare for a New Theatre. Next, the trio of Adolph Herseth, Doc Severinsen, and Charles Lazarus came out to perform Britten’s Fanfare for St. Edmundsbury. This piece was especially enjoyable, because it allows all of the players to first play their parts solo, then play together as a trio. It was a wonderful experience being able to hear the different, distinct voices of all three players blend well as the piece closed.
Dave Cooper was next, playing the first movement of John Williams’ Concerto for Trumpet. The performance gave Dr. Cooper a chance to display the technical facility necessary for performing the piece, as it explores a wide range on the instrument, and uses some very spacious and challenging intervals. He was assisted by Eric Brisson, who tended to the technical demands contained in the piano part.
Charles Lazarus was next to play, and he provided the audience with some flair, as he performed some of his latest works and arrangements. He first played one of his own compositions, Kilauea’s Fountains, a piece that demonstrated his velocity and multiple tonguing, as the piece flew by in an array of multi-linear passages. He then picked up his cornet, and played a duo with Craig Hara on guitar, titled Proclamation for Amnesty (from Nobel Symphony). This gave the audience a chance to hear him play with a more lyrical, singing quality. The final piece again had Craig Hara on wave drum, and was titled Proclamation for Justice (from Nobel Symphony). This time, Mr. Lazarus played on piccolo, showing a very strong sense of melody. The small set really displayed his flexibility on the different instruments, as well as a wide range of technique.
Dave Cooper and Martin Hodel followed with selections from Dr. Cooper’s latest book, Bela Bartok’s 44 Duets for Violin, arranged for trumpet. The playing of the two blended very well on Bartok's melodic, sometimes dark, Hungarian folk melodies. They were both given the chance to play out and play as more of an accompanist, showing their ability to play off of each other very well. The set also allowed them to use a variety of trumpets, from C’s to Bb’s to piccolos. The duets translate very well for the trumpet, and the book provides students with some very challenging music, as well as great recital pieces.
The end of the first half of the concert featured all of the guest artists, playing Fantasia for Seven Trumpets by Eric Ewazen. This was a definite highlight for all who attended, as it was a rare chance to see so many greats in the trumpet world playing together. Ewazen’s composition gives all of the players a chance to play out at times, so the audience was given a chance to hear a bit of everyone. The ensemble was a rare chance to see a very high level of musicality and ability to achieve a very homogeneous sound. The conclusion of the piece was met with an enthusiastic applause from the packed Toland Theatre.
The second half of the concert opened with the featured members of the Minnesota Orchestra section; Charles Lazarus, Robert Dorer, and Doug Carlsen. They collaborated to play 3 Madrigals by John Wilbye, arranged by David Baldwin. The care in sound and awareness that the three had with each other’s playing was quite prevalent, and gave the audience a very strong opening to the second half.
The remainder of the concert was dedicated to jazz. Charles Lazarus played a very beautiful Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child, with the ever-versatile Craig Hara, who also played trumpet on the Ewazen piece, filling in on piano.
Some of the faculty at UW-L came out next to play with Dave Cooper on his composition Actions. The members of the group included Greg Balfany on tenor sax, Christopher Frye on piano, and Karyn Quinn on bass. Craig Hara filled in the spot on the drum set. Dr. Cooper’s playing really shined, as his highly motivic solos developed into an array of very musical licks and melodic lines.
Both Dave Cooper and Charles Lazarus came out to play one of Mr. Lazarus’ original compositions, Waves, with Mark Lortz on marimba and Craig Hara on guitar and percussion. The piece had a very ethnic feel, as it seemed to use influences from other cultures. Both Dr. Cooper and Mr. Lazarus took the opportunity to complement each other’s solos, and their highly individual approaches to playing really came through.
The faculty combo finished up the concert, playing two more pieces, one by Dave Cooper and one by Charles Lazarus. The first by Dr. Cooper, titled Waiting for Kelly, was dedicated to his wife, Kelly De Haven. Dr. Cooper again played out brilliantly, and Balfany and Frye each took turns with their expressive solos. Craig Hara took time to play through a solo of his own on the drums, before the piece closed.
The final piece on the concert featured Doc Severinsen, Dave Cooper, and Charles Lazarus on Deal, a funky, bluesy piece by Mr. Lazarus. The three traded solos, Mr. Lazarus’ was a display of his playing in the extreme upper register, Dr. Cooper’s was another array of lines in his own personal style, and Doc’s was a bluesy, well played out solo that showed exactly why he is one of the true giants of the trumpet world. For many, it was the first chance to hear him play jazz, and everyone was rewarded immensely.
Following a thunderous ovation, the faculty combo and Dave Cooper and Charles Lazarus came out for an encore of Monk’s Straight, No Chaser. At the very conclusion, all of the participating artists came out behind Mr. Herseth and Mr. Severinsen to a standing ovation that lasted for quite a while.
For all who were able to witness the UW-L Spring Trumpet Festival and its culminating concert, they truly saw a unique weekend filled with the best in the trumpet world. It was a weekend of insight, learning, and a lot of stories, tips, beautiful playing, and most of all, wonderful memories.
Jerod Sommerfeldt is a student at University of Wisconsin – La Crosse majoring in Composition.
David Cooper is the trumpet professor and director of jazz studies at the University of Wisconsin – Platteville. He can be reached at www.DavidCooperMusic.com
Music at University of Wisconsin – La Crosse
Music at University of Wisconsin – Platteville
Source: Jerod Sommerfeldt and David Cooper
Photo used by kind permission of the University